Quick Fix Culture
I will talk about how major companies and entire industries are build on exploiting inherent human reward mechanisms for market gain. Giant players in this space provide fine-tuned personalized services to an increasingly global market. While they disguise such behavior as ‘giving the consumers what they want’, a large fraction of us will admit that they spend too much time consuming said services than they are comfortable with, foregoing more meaningful activities and curbing productivity. I will propose a way of how such a system can come into existence without premeditated ill intentions. In addition, I will address its far reaching implications on society to which we should not be blind. I want to stress that I refrain from judging whether this trend is beneficial or not, both on an individual and societal level. I do, however, want to scrutinise the current retention-seeking behaviour and address possible consequences in specific sectors that are omnipresent in our lives.
This text is structure in the following way:
1. Internal Emotional state.
2. Circumventing nature; finding the Quick Fix.
3. Examples of Quick Fix industries.
4. The emergence of Quick Fix Culture.
5. Possible consequences.
6. How to reduce the impact of Quick Fix Culture.
1. Internal Emotional State
Before we delve into the mechanism by which companies steer our behavior, we need to understand what causes human behavior in the first place. In recent decades it has become particularly clear that our choices are regulated more by emotions than by rational decision making. This is specifically true when it comes to consumer behavior. This observation lies at the hearth of the field of behavioral economics, which has proven its success time and time again over the classic school of thought. As much as we like to think otherwise, human behavior in general is for the most part driven by emotions, so let’s start there.
Emotions sprout in the limbic system, a specific region in the brain which we share with our fellow mammals. Apart from housing our emotions, it is known to support functions such as motivation and long-term memory forming. But why, you might ask, do we have the ability to feel internal emotional experiences in the first place? As with the majority of traits and functions of the body, the answer is found by taking an evolutionary point of view, by looking for its evolutionary advantage. Basically, in order for a feature or trait to persist throughout generations, it needs to give the organism an evolutionary advantage compared to not having the trait. This advantage mainly entails having more offspring to pass on your genes to, thereby spreading the trait through the population. There are two ways which ensure more offspring:
- being less likely to die young (natural selection),
- being more likely to find a partner (sexual selection).
The advantages of morphological features are often readily understood. For instance, in an environment scattered with both food, mates, and predators it easy to appreciate a visual detection system. Being able to distinguish looming death from your next meal is a crucial part of survival and adaptation to the environment. Using this kind of reasoning to explain the presence of an internal mental state is much less straight forward. What we do know for sure, however, is that at some point in our evolutionary history, being able to have emotional experiences was evolution’s newest feature to increase survival odds and reproduction; the newest upgrade. Without going into too much detail, I will now attempt to explain this evolutionary leap.
One way to make sense of the emergence of emotions, is to consider life before this point, without the presence of an internal mental experience. To do this, let’s imagine two organisms and compare them with one another. One organism possesses only the most rudimentary form of emotions. It can only experience the emotional states of feeling good or bad. The second organism is identical to the first, but has no emotional internal state at all. To get an idea of such a life form, consider the fact that such an organism cannot exhibit behavior based on desirable and non-desirable, because it has no urge to strive to any particular state of being. Therefore, together with morphological observations, it is reasonable to conclude that without emotional capabilities, organisms behave only in a reflexive manner to external stimuli. Humans still exhibit some of these reflexive behaviors such as pulling away instantly when touching a hot surface, or ducking down when something rapidly approaches your face. These actions are driven without any internal mental state. It might be hard to image a life where all actions are governed in this reflexive way. However, life of such organisms is of rudimentary complexity compared to ours.
Having set the stage, we can now wonder why one organism has the advantage over the other. Why is the capability to experience an internal mental state advantageous to reflexive behavior? The answer in one word: Flexibility.
Reflexive behavior is beneficial in the way that it triggers immediate actions in situations that would otherwise mean certain death. The downside however, is that these reflexive responses will always be triggered under the specific external stimuli, whatever their cause may be. This rigidness has, among many others, two negative consequences: false positiveand slow adaptation.
False positive indicates a reflexive action which is triggered by an external stimulus that is not caused by what the reflex is meant to protect you from. In such a scenario the organism might forego beneficial situations due to a false alarm. As an example, consider our reflexive organism living in shallow waters, feeding of soil vegetation. It is prey to many larger and slower organisms looming in the waters above. A life saving reflex might be to dart away when the light intensity suddenly drops, indicating a shadow of a possible predator directly above. However, it is easy to imagine other, non-threatening objects which cast shadows as well, and even though they pose no danger to the organism, they all trigger the same reflex.
The rigidness of reflexive actions also entails that they are non-versatile; each reflex is hard wired and triggered by very specific external conditions. This means that when the environment changes, some of the reflexive behavior that once increased the odds of survival, is now rendered useless since the triggering external stimuli do not occur anymore. Conversely, there might be new existential threats that induce no reflexive action at all. These phenomena are summarized by saying that reflexive behavior is extremely slow to adapt to changing environments. This can be illustrated by revisiting our reflexive organism in the shallow waters. If the predators themselves at some point adopt the new strategy to creep up from behind, rather than from above, thus not casting a shadow, our little reflexive friend has no defenses and has become easy prey for the adaptive predator. In an alternative scenario, where the predators have gone extinct, the reflexive organism will still dart away at the sight of appearing shadows. Even though these are now exclusively cast by non-threatening objects.
Being aware of the downsides that come with the rigidness of a solely reflexive way of living, it is time to look at emotions, and how they do a better job at regulating our behavior. For a mechanism to augment, or even largely replace reflexive behavior, it needs to be able to induce the necessary actions that ensure survival odds and reproduction. At the same time it has to be flexible enough to be versatile in the current environment and adaptive to changing environments. It turns out that having an internal mental state together with the ability to experience emotions was the superior mechanism. Let’s explore why this is.
At its core, an internal mental life is the ability to distinguish between a desirable and undesirable state of being, and the urge to be in the former. The emergence of a desirable state of being goes hand in hand with the notion of wantingsomething. Next, it is reasonable to assert that the behavior of an organism, which is the conglomerate of its actions, is targeted towards satisfying these wants, expressing the urge to be in the desirable state. To fulfill the constraint that this mechanism should increase survival odds and reproduction, the desired and undesired mental state should be triggered by stimuli that enhance or curb said evolutionary traits, respectively. These stimuli can be both promoting behavior (feeling hunger, desirable), and discourage (feeling sick after eating something poisonous, undesirable).
Within this framework emotions are different expressions of the desirable and undesirable state, steering our behavior accordingly. Naturally, our emotions are much more nuanced that mere ‘good’ and ‘bad’. Sadness is different than fear but are both considered undesirable, whereas feeling in love and pride are both considered good but clearly feel different. These nuances and continuities across emotions reflect the complexity of the environment in which we operate, especially in social settings where cooperation is crucial.
Let’s now briefly return to why this mechanism is superior to the reflexive behavior, which had downsides due to its rigid nature. The emotion mechanism is superior in its flexibility: It is versatile because desirable and undesirable states can be triggered by a plethora of diverse external and internal stimuli. The system is highly adaptable to changes in the environment because the corresponding behavior is not hardwired in a way reflexes are.
To conclude this part and as a gateway into the next, let’s summarize the crux of why the limbic system, and corresponding emotions, have evolved.
Experiencing emotions is a mechanism evolved to satisfy basic needs to maximize survival odds and reproduction in a flexible and adaptive manner. Corresponding behavior expresses the urge to be in a desirable mental state of being. In this sense, feeling good can be seen as a reward mechanism for organisms to perform actions that improve survival odds and reproduction.
The second part of the previous statement is particularly interesting, and is often misunderstood. Feeling good (or happy) is not why emotions have evolved, that is not their end goal. Instead, it is the resulting behavior to strive towards these feelings that is the prime reason they exist. Mixing these up would be like students saying the goal of education is to get good grades.
In short, emotions are to incite beneficial behavior and reversely discourage destructive behavior.
A question then naturally arises: what happens if we are able to circumvent the actions that were originally required to experience positive emotions? Getting the reward without doing the work. What if we find a quick fix?
2. Circumventing nature; finding a quick fix.
Our environment has changed tremendously over the past hundreds of years. The conditions in which we now live are not representative for the vast majority of humans that roamed the earth throughout history. Many existential challenges have been overcome, and all of our basic needs, which occupied our ancestors for most of their day, are now fulfilled by default. If you are reading this, chances are slim that you have to worry about drinkable water, getting enough calories, or keeping warm at night. The consequences of these historically unique conditions are most likely not what our ancestors would have imagined them to be. As harsh as life used to be, somewhere along the path of ever increasing prosperity, the balance tipped in the other direction. Due to the abundance we live with today, the mechanisms that ensured our survival in the past are starting to turn against itself. We’ve even come to a point where these mechanisms are actively exploited to feed the insatiable desire towards more growth and higher profits. This might start to sound like a conspiracy theory in the making, so let me be clear. There are no ill intentions or large schemes at work here, further on I will describe how such a system comes about naturally, and will spiral out of control without the proper precautions. But first, what exactly is the current situation?
While the circumstances in which we live have changed dramatically, our physiology has not. Evolutionary change is inherently a slow process, one which takes dozens of generations to induce any significant change. Our hardware simply cannot keep up with the rapid pace of advancing conditions. We still run around with the same brain as our ancestors did. A brain that houses the same mechanisms to ensure our survival in an environment that not in the slightest resembles the one we find ourselves in today. It has become increasingly easy to fulfill the urges our limbic system imposes on us. Consequently, the actions it incited us to do in the past to ensure our survival and reproduction, are being rendered obsolete. For instance, in an environment where calories are hard to come by, feasting on scare resources of sugary and fat saturated foods becomes a survival mechanism. Today there is an abundance of such foods, and they are easily available, however we still feel the urge to consume them without restrain. Our taste for foods rich in sugars and fat is not calibrated on the effortless availability of their limitless consumption.
The process of making it increasingly easy to overcome the challenges our ancestors had is not inherently a bad thing. When humans can spend less time working to fulfill basic needs, more time becomes available to express our curiosity and creativity. This leads to innovation and progress, which alleviate humans from our ancestors’ daily burdens. In recent decades, however, another phenomenon has started to show. One that seems to unavoidably follow from progress in an economic system based around growth and profits. Suppliers quickly noticed that people will consume according to their urges, far beyond what is good for them. Most people will consume whatever satisfies their urges the quickest and the most intense. For instance, people have stopped satisfying their urge for quick sugars by eating fruit, which was the natural available resource for millennia. Instead they have taken their hunger for sweets to the extreme, consuming products designed to give them the quickest and most intense sugar rush. The average consumer today eats more artificial sugars in the form of candy, soda, and other processed foods, than ever possible by intake through unprocessed sources such as fruit and berries. The food industry knows this, and tailors its products towards these innate urges and insatiable desires. It is this dynamic what I call exploiting innate human nature.
Exploiting human nature is the tailoring of products or services that target the urges we humans experience, leading to consuming behavior that satisfies them in the most efficient, quick and intense manner, when it is is not in the best interest of the consumers.
It is also in this sense that the mechanism of pleasure, the desires it creates, and the resulting behavior, has turned itself against its own interest. Whereas it used to ensure survival and reproduction, it now often leads to physical degradation, mental numbness and lack of motivation. To further show how this quick fix dynamics work, I will touch upon some examples of industries where they have become increasingly dominant. They show how omnipresent this quick fix culture has become. It is interesting to see how this precise targeting of desires unites seemingly different industries. If you get the idea however, feel free to skip ahead to where I talk about how such systems come to be, and how to guard yourself against them.
3. Examples of quick-fix industries
Sometimes the best way to grasp an idea is through examples. In this specific case they have an added benefit. When you are able to spot quick fix dynamics in action, you are less prone to go along with them, to which I will come back to in later parts. Here are several areas where the quick fix culture is most dominant up to the point where their entire business model is based around it. Consequently, the application in these industries has the most far reaching consequences. For each one, we can clearly identify the urge they fulfill, the behavior they want to incite, and the action that is foregone.
Food industry: This example has been discussed above already and I will not go into detail again. In short, food producers and suppliers have found that our cravings far outreach what is healthy for us. In the past, this was not an issue, since the foods we craved for were very scarce. Currently however, supply of food in the Western world is near limitless. However, companies get more sales and higher profits when they focus specifically on foods that satisfy our cravings the most. Entire research programs are funded to figure out exactly which proportion of fats, sugar, and salt satisfy our urges optimally. In a sense they research which foods are most addictive. Some of these designer foods have an eerie effect on people, which closely resembles that of addictive substances. They might satisfy us in the short term, but after consuming them without restrain, leave us feeling worse both physically and mentally. However, this does not restrain people from buying them again the next time they go for groceries. What’s worse, is that in the long term they have a devastating effect on our bodies, dwindling our life expectancy. The same cravings that increased our survival odds in the past push us ever faster towards our grave, all while aiding companies that strive for more profits. The behavior of short term satisfaction despite long term devastation is a clear sign of addiction, and not unique to the food industry.
Gaming industry and gambling Humans love to make progress, to learn something new or get further ahead. The pleasure we feel from having overcome obstacles and reaping the benefits is like no other. This positive feeling attached to accomplishment ensures optimal adaptability. Indeed, if trying something new and succeeding would not come with the subsequent pleasure, we would not have left our caves, ever.
In the physical world, making progress comes from hard work and putting your body to the test. In social environments, making progress requires us to overcome feelings shame, disappointment and compromise. On a mental level it means questioning the status quo, and daring to think differently. The bottom line is that the pleasure you get from making progress is there because it ensures doing the hard things in life to get us ahead. Enter the gaming industry. More often than not, games are fine tuned to give you a sense of progression without having to feel any discomfort, physically or mentally. The offer the quick fix of feeling the pleasure that comes from progression, without doing the hard things it originally required. Game developing companies spend large amounts of money balancing the fine line between making the progression too easy, which does not give as much pleasure upon completion, and making it too hard, which makes many people give up and quit the game. There has been a notable trend in the gaming industry towards an ever increasing focus on quick and easy rewards in games. This reflects the growing reluctance of people to work for their reward, lowering the collective bar. Here again a large part of the industry is focused around exploiting the innate pleasure we get from progression. These easy progression mechanisms has lead a large portion of people spending countless hours playing such games, pursuing rewards that only have value inside the game ecosystem. Of course, as has been shown there are also benefits to gaming. However, you can wonder whether getting used to easy progression influences the ability to do hard things in order to get the same feeling of satisfaction.
Tied with the strive towards progression comes the behavior of risk seeking. Sometimes to make the most significant progress, we have to take some risk. In general, people are risk averse, we tend to avoid it. However, we can be tolerable of uncertainty, but only when concerns possible gains. Studies on human risk seeking behavior have shown that we are far more likely to take risk when the payoff is considerably higher than the initial loss. This phenomenon, together with the fact that people are naturally inclined to prefer a little bit of risk, is exploited by the way chance games are designed. In the vast majority of cases, the game is set up in a way where the winning price (the jackpot) is incredibly high, but the chances of winning are very slim. Thus, the money required to put in to play is very little in comparison to what can be gained. This decreases the barrier of entry so that more people will test their luck.
People are more inclined to pay $1 to have a 1% change to win $1000, than paying $1 to have a 50% chance to win $2, even though both have the same expected return.
In the gambling industry, research has also found that people experiencing a near miss keep playing far more likely than after a complete miss. For instance, when a roulette player betting on the 0 pocket misses it by only one pocket to the left or right from it, as opposed to any other random pocket, he or she is much more likely to continue playing. Driven by the fact that on average casinos make money every time you play, the industry designs their games such that it is much more likely to get a near miss than to get a random miss. Obviously both are still a miss either way, and the monetary loss is identical (you lose). However the subsequent behavior is greatly influenced, and always in favor of the house.
Both industries have recently started to learn from each other, and gaming companies are now massively implementing gambling mechanics into their games. They increase the influence of chance and dress it up as if people have nothing to lose. This evolution can be seen as questionable since these games are played by children, and exposing them to gambling practices at a young age might not be of their best interest.
Adult industry: Birth rates would not nearly be as high if the means of reproduction was not as pleasurable as it is. This simple fact shows that people do not necessarily want to reproduce, but rather want get their brain filled with dopamine (roughly speaking). It is another perfect example of what I described as the reason why emotions evolved in the first place. It is the action of reproducing that was ensured by making it pleasurable. To put it in evolutionary terms; the individuals that did not enjoy sex, did not bother looking for mates, and consequently did not pass on their genes. Those that did enjoy sex, searched for mates more vigilantly, and were able to pass on their genes. In this sense making the act of reproduction pleasurable ensures transmission of the genes.
As will be clear by now, with all feelings of pleasures comes an action required to get to those experiences. With sex this is no different. To ensure reproduction, you need to find a partner, which in general is not as evident. It requires subtle social interaction, taking risk of getting turned down, social rejection, and making compromises. For humans it also means convincing each other to devote a great deal of time and resources to care for the offspring. That is a lot of work and dedication to get the pleasure of sexual intercourse. The adult industry is based around circumventing these hard actions, bypassing the work by providing a quick fix, albeit in many cases, a watered down version.
Social media and the news cycle: I want to end this list of examples with the one that might be most relevant to the majority of people today. Social media and the endless news cycle might be relatively new phenomena, it is hard to imagine contemporary society without them. In just under two decades social media has gone from non-existent to conquering the world and occupying most of people’s free time. It is by far the most data-driven and individual targeting of industries, changing our lives on a more fundamental level than people would like to think. Moreover, they do this by offering their services completely free of charge. Because this topic is vast and its consequences so far reaching, I will here mainly touch upon the different aspects of how social media is using and amplifying the quick fix culture. An in dept discussion on social media and its consequences on the future I will leave for another time.
Humans are social creatures. We not only rely on cooperation for just about anything that keeps us alive, but also depend on each other for our mental well being. Suffice to say that most of the happiest moment are spend together with the ones we love. In evolutionary terms, social interactions made us thrive, thus to ensure them they come with a deep sense of happiness. Not always, of course, but most of the time. In order to strengthen the bonds between people we also get a kick from finding things out about our fellow humans. I will call social curiosity. One expression of this trait is the fact that we measure ourselves with others, we look at others to judge whether we are on the right track. We compare ourselves with others in search of a sense of validation, or even to calibrate our thoughts and sense of truth. This social curiosity is important; It makes sure we are roughly on the same page with the people we live and work with. It is beneficial for our mental well being within the context of a limited group of close people in a physical social environment.
What social media has become is a far cry from a mere social network. Instead it has latched itself on our social curiosityand presented to it the entire world, while at the same time ditching the physical social setting. Instead of finding out about someone through social interaction with the person, we get presented a well polished, artificial story carried by idyllic pictures. We are left comparing ourselves with the entire world. Anything we do or strive towards, we can compare with the world’s best at that specific area. There will always be someone better at it, right in our face. And while for ourselves our lives are unfiltered, we are exposed to the highly self-censored highs of other people’s lives. Moreover, physical social interactions come with incredible nuance in facial expressions and voice intonations. They seem to have been replaced by text and generic emoticons. Yet again, a very specific natural urge is targeted and we cannot resist the bait of instant satisfaction. However, in the process we lose out on other rich aspects that normally come with the process of satisfying this urge. We unknowingly settle for watered down quick fixes.
There are of course a number of other far reaching effects of social media of which we do not yet know the consequences of. I will name them without going into detail for now. For a large part we look for other to calibrate our own views of the world. With the maturing of social media, it has become easier than ever to find like minded people and feel validated in our believes. However extreme your views, you will be able to find people that share you vision. Moreover, it is made sure that you will not be exposed to opposing ideas. This is the phenomenon of echo chambers, and a large driver of the ever increasing polarization in society. Then there is the diminishing of our skill to maintain focus on tasks we are occupied with. Constant unsolicited notifications wack us out of concentration. The temptation to get a quick fix distraction within a few second at any moment robs us of our ability to do deep work.
4. The spiral of creating quick-fix culture
I must admit those examples do not make for a pretty picture of society, even less so for the industries that have uncovered how to target our deep desires with laser sharp precision. Considering the loss of life quality for many of the people that have fallen trap to these practices, one could start to see these companies as having malicious intentions. However, I want to stress that this is not necessarily true. Many of the systems that are currently in place have grown out of a feedback loop from their initial, benign form. I will attempt to describe in a few short steps the way in which quick fix practices can come about.
- Initially some individuals challenge the current state of things. They are convinced they can do better and start addressing a specific problem they see in their lives. They have a vision for a better future and start with the idea of building one. From these efforts a benign technology emerges that solves a problem and improves the lives of its conceiver and many other people.
- When the resolved problem fulfills an innate urge, the built solution will gain traction fast among the general population. Moreover, the providers will gain data on what part is most popular among their consumers, which inevitably turns out to be the thing that gives the most satisfaction and fulfills an innate urge most efficiently. Consumers cannot help it, it is deeply ingrained to strive towards fulfilling their desires.
- When the success becomes known to other parties, they will develop their own version of the product or service. A fierce competition emerges. Through their vast amounts of data, they device their product or services in such a way that they target these urges in the most precise way in an attempt to conquer more market share. Moreover, the first mover has lost its freedom to curb the runaway feedback loop of designing ever more targeted products. They have lost the possibility to hold back and take the long term consequences into account. Due to the competitive nature of a capitalist market, there will be an ever driving force towards satisfying the consumers most efficiently, disregarding their well being. Capitalism has no mechanisms that protect consumers against their own desires, which if left unchecked will be self destructive.
- Specifically in the Social Media industry this feedback loop is particularly strong. These companies provide their services for free while getting their revenue from advertising. Increased traction and reach leads to an interest in marketing and advertising companies, competing for attention. This inflow of attention and money stimulates the companies to do even more research on individual targeting, satisfying each individual’s slightly different urge. In this sense these companies’ revenue is directly coupled to how well they are at exploiting your social curiosity.
5. Possible long term effects of quick fix culture
I could discuss the possible consequences of the quick fix mechanisms installed for each of the examples above. However, because it is hard to predict where each of these industries is heading towards, I think it gives more insight to address the effects of the emergence of quick fix culture in general. Perhaps the defining characteristic of humans compared to all other species is that we have the ability to postpone rewards. We are able to bear immediate costs in order to reap the benefits later on, thereby foregoing quick satisfaction. We are able to do the hard thing, defying the path of least resistance. This crucial skill becomes threatened by the emergence of quick fix culture. We are increasingly seduced to take the quick fix bait and abandon the doing the hard thing. We are conditioned to take the quick reward. If left unchecked, this might result in diminishing our willingness to forego immediate reward and plan for long term goals, to take on big challenges that drive our progress. In correspondence with this trend, we are at risk of losing our ability to focus. The constant draw for our attention by marketing efforts and intruding notification leaves our attention being fragmented, scattered over anything that might offer the slightest distraction. Our ability to concentrate, free of unsolicited input is crucial to perform deep and meaningful work. The speed at which these major changes have occurred show that our standards for what we find acceptable take little time to adapt to new ways of living. A perfect example is a study from the late nineties in which people were questioned about their thoughts about the rise of mobile cell phones. Most of them were skeptic and even outraged at the possibility of being available to people when they were outside the house. Most argued that they wouldn’t like to be disturbed when they were doing their own thing. It is amazing how public opinion can change so drastically.
6. Reduce the impact of quick fix culture
Just as at some point our limbic system was evolution’s newest upgrade, the prefrontal cortex is currently the most recently developed region in the brain. It is where our deliberate reasoning comes from, and is used to rationalize our emotions and behavior. One could think of it as having the possibility to override the urges that come from the limbic system. Instead of having our behavior steered completely by trying to satisfy these urges, we can choose to fight back using our capability to reason about our behavior and its consequences. There is a meaningful gap between wantingsomething and deciding whether to act on it or not. We have the choice to override the wants dictated by our desires with the knowledge of whether the resulting action is beneficial to us or not.
There are several things you can do to reduce the impact of quick fix culture on your life. To use its benefits without having to cope with the downsides. Detailed and concrete practices I will leave for another time, but these general principles will take you a long way.
- Get informed, don’t be held back by the idea of doing some work and learning new things. Use the beautiful side of internet to look things up and do some digging. Realize that the information you get presented is based on what you are likely to agree with based on previous behavior.
- Become aware of what you eat, get familiar with basic nutrition, calories, and the ingredients you can read on packaging. Get to know what is healthy, and what is not.
- Become mindful of how you spend your time. Take back control over your personal space when it comes to distraction. Mute notifications, and think about what exactly you want to use social media for.
- Be deliberate in what you buy. Be aware of marketing techniques and individual targeting of advertisements. Ask yourself whether you really need what it is you want to buy, and where the want to buy came from in the first place.
- Be intentional in what you do. Life is short, so try to spend the majority of it doing premeditated things, while still leaving room for spontaneous inspiration. Regularly ask yourself if what you are doing at that specific moment is something you will look back on without regret.
Large institutions will never stop striving for more profits, it is simply to way to survive in a capitalist system. Therefore I don’t think we can expect any change coming from their side. If you want to break the spiral of quick fix culture, you should start with your own behavior. Then perhaps, when a sufficient number of people become aware of these dynamics, it will become more profitable for companies to follow suit, and then they will.